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上海自贸区:小型实验场

2013-10-15
                 Container trucks drive past the container area at the Yangshan Deep Water Port, part of the newly announced Shanghai Free Trade Zone, south of Shanghai September 26, 2013. China has formally announced detailed plans for a new free-trade zone (FTZ) in Shanghai, touted as the country's biggest potential economic reform since Deng Xiaoping used a similar zone in Shenzhen to pry open a closed economy to trade in 1978. In an announcement on Friday from the State Council, or cabinet, China said it will open up its largely sheltered services sector to foreign competition in the zone and use it as a testbed for bold financial reforms, including a convertible yuan and liberalized interest rates. Economists consider both areas key levers for restructuring the world's second-largest economy and putting it on a more sustainable growth path. Picture taken on September 26, 2013. REUTERS/Carlos Barria (CHINA - Tags: POLITICS BUSINESS INDUSTRIAL TPX IMAGES OF THE DAY)
 
       上海自贸试验区9月29日正式挂牌。中国政府及官方媒体称上海自由贸易试验区是中国经济发展的一座里程碑,凸显中国融入全球化大趋势的决心。德语媒体认为,该自贸区真正让人瞩目的是拟议中金融系统的开放。
 

An employee counts Chinese 100 yuan banknotes at a branch of China Merchants Bank in Hefei, Anhui province June 21, 2013. China's central bank faced down the country's cash-hungry banks on Friday, letting interest rates again spike to extraordinary levels as it increases the pressure on the banks to rein in rampant informal lending and speculative trading. REUTERS/Stringer (CHINA - Tags: BUSINESS)

成为自由兑换货币被视为中国货币改革的方向

      10月1日一期《柏林日报》的一篇署名文章指出,这个面积29平方公里的自贸区将是一个“特殊中国”的小型实验场,中国所面临的问题在这里才会更加明显,其中就包括内部的反对意见:至2020年,黄浦江畔的这个城市要成长为国际金融中心之一。这是一个雄心勃勃的计划。不过,人们迄今确知的只是:会减税、减少海关手续、减少繁文缛节,一切都要更好、更有效率。从电信到运输到文教,19个行业将因自由化受益。即使现在还缺乏具体的指标,根本的惊讶之点在于计划中的金融业的开放。在一份总体方案中,政府确定了某些要点:外国银行可以在区内更方便开设分行,境外合作伙伴可拥有(中外)合资银行的多数股权,本国银行也可开展面向外国主顾的离岸银行业务。……一种可自由兑换的货币对此是重要的。强势的人民币将使进口变得便宜,有助于降低通胀,使中国人有条件扩大消费,这正是中国政府总理李克强及其改革设想的目标。他是这个试验区项目的最大支持者。不过,他未出席挂牌仪式。

 

Shanghai Municipality Communist Party Secretary Han Zheng inaugurates the Shanghai Free Trade Zone during a ceremony in Pudong district of Shanghai on September 29, 2013. China launched a free trade zone in its commercial hub Shanghai, with the project seen as a testing ground for much-needed reforms in the world's second largest economy. AFP PHOTO / POOL (Photo credit should read CARLOS BARRIA/AFP/Getty Images)

上海自贸试验区2013年9月29日举行挂牌仪式

 

        该报还称,在党内,这一的改革方案引起争议。尤其对推动金融领域开放的速度,存在异议。因为,开放意味着国内银行权力的削减,……因此,银行、国有企业,尤其是石油产业,表示反对快速开放。无论如何,它不过是一种小尺寸开放。在对外公开的方案中,根本就未提及法律安全问题。有关自贸区内将拥有更大信息自由的传闻很快被证实缺乏根据。……上海的试验充满风险。因为,在原型中国内部建设一个不同的中国,虽带来一定的自由,但也带来矛盾。每一种特例同时都暴露了无所不在的规定,每一次特批都暴露了这个国家根深蒂固的那些原则,暴露了那种极力控制一切的、不自由的制度。”

 

A man walks past a welcoming sign of the newly announced Shanghai Free Trade Zone in Shanghai in this September 25, 2013 file photo. China's leaders will lay out plans to transform the world's second-largest economy at a key party meeting in November, leaving the question of how to do it largely unanswered as much of the reform agenda is still a matter of heated internal debate. To match CHINA-ECONOMY/REFORMS REUTERS/Carlos Barria/Files (CHINA - Tags: POLITICS BUSINESS)

 上海自贸区启动

 

欧盟业界人士的期待

      当天的《法兰克福汇报》这样谈到欧盟业界人士对上海自贸区的期待:从中期看,(中国)需要结构性改革,……对此,自贸区发出了一个积极信号。欧盟驻北京商会希望(欧洲)企业终于能在上海获得公平竞争条件。在一份声明中,该商会表示,期待试验区很快能扩大至浦东这个上海的整个东部地区,期待其它城市也建立此类试验区。德意志银行认为,(上海的)这一试验‘显示了中央政府的决心,取消在贸易和诸多服务行业中存在的干扰因素,进一步推进投资和金融业的自由化政策。’这样的变革是必不可少的,由此,中国将能够同美国、日本和其它国家一起加入拟议中的跨太平洋自由贸易协定TPP。

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